History of pedagogy

There are no written proofs that can tell us exactly who has thought of educational technology. Different educationalists, scientists and philosophers at different times have presented different definitions of education technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, tools and structures where technology from different areas of science is borrowed according to the need and need for education to perform, assess and manage solutions to the problems that are taking

Education Technology has generally gone through five stages .

The first phase of education technology is associated with the use of aids such as tablets, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonymous with audiovisual media.

Another level of education technology relates to the "electronic revolution" by introducing and establishing advanced hardware and software. The use of various audiovisual media such as projectors, magic lights, tape recorder, radio and television led to revolutionary learning changes. Accordingly, the concept of education technology was taken with regard to these advanced equipment and equipment for the effective presentation of teaching materials.

The third level of education technology relates to the development of the media, which led to "communication breakthroughs" for teaching purposes. Computer-assisted teaching (CAI), used for education since 1950, also became popular during this period.

The fourth level of education technology is identified by an individual learning process. The invention of programmed learning and programmed teaching provided a new dimension in education technology. Systems of self-study based on self-study and teaching machines were presented.

The latest term of education technology influences the concept of system engineering or system methodology, which includes laboratories, teaching machines, programmed teaching, multimedia technology and the use of the computer in teaching. Accordingly, education technology is a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the overall process of teaching and learning with regard to specific research-based objectives.

Education Techniques at the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age

Education, despite the uncertainty about the origin of the term, can be traced to the period of three-year system management of human history; ie Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age.

The Stone Age, the fence of tearing stones, the production of various handmade weapons and tools made of stones and clothing, was a few simple technological developments. The breakthrough of Stone Age people developed a portable radio transmission technology to move from one place to another across the ocean, as they developed their first informal education with knowledge of ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing, astrology and star charts. During the subsequent Stone Age period (Neolithic era), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard stones mostly by digging underground tunnels, which can be regarded as the first steps in mining technology. The rented axes were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used it to clean the forest and create cultivation.

Although fossil schools had not left written documents, archaeological research proved that they were changing from macroeconomic life to agricultural settlements. Antique tools preserved in different collections, cave pictures like the Altamira caves in Spain and other prehistoric arts, such as Venus Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France, etc., are some evidence for their benefit.

Neolithic Revolution Stone Age resulted in the appearance of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, animal domestic and approved permanent settlement. In this practice Bronze Age, metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, further developed a metal and tin alloy, which are the materials they have chosen.

The iron needles divided into bronze and developed knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower The cost of making iron items was stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many European cultures, the Iron Age was the last season before writing was written.

Educational Technology in the Period of the Ancient World

According to Paul Saettler 2004, learning technology can be traced back The time when the clergy of systematic knowledge centers and ancient cultures invented pictures or written in writing to record and send information. In all levels of humanity civilization you can find a teaching method or procedures designed to perform a certain culture that was also supported by numerous research and evidence. The greater the culture, the more complex became the technique of teaching designed to reflect the specific ways of individual and social behavior designed to run a professional society. Over the centuries, every significant change in education, goals or goals has resulted in a wide range of teaching techniques.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering arose with ancient civilization. These advances stimulate and educate other communities in the world to adopt new ways of living and managing.

Indus Valley Civilization was the early Bronze Age civilization that was located in northwestern India. Civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus Basin of Indus and Punjab, which covers the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley and Ganges-Yamuna Doab (most things are under Pakistan today and the western countries of modern India and some of the civilization that covers southeastern Afghanistan and eastern Balochistan, Iran).

Long-term controversy is to be sure about the language that the audience spoke. It is assumed that their writing would be at least a figurative script. The script seems to have had about 400 basics, with lots of changes. People write their script with a general policy from right to left. Most were written on seals and seals that were probably used in commercial and public and administrative work.

The crowd had knowledge of measuring instruments of length, mass and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weight and measures.

In a study conducted by P. N. Rao et al. In 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script pattern is closer to what is spoken word, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for yet unknown languages.

According to Chinese civilization, some of China's leading technology offerings include paper, early seismological sensor, toilet paper, matching, iron cushion, multi-tube seed drill, suspension, wheelbarrow, parachute, natural gas as a fuel, magnetic compass, illuminated card, blast furnace, screws , cube, suede bag and gun powder. With the invention of paper, they have given the first step towards the development of education technology by further culture of different handmade paper products as a means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was one of the longest surviving and used languages ​​in the world. Their script was based on images of real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These images are commonly referred to as hieroglyphs. Their language was made from over 500 hierogens that are known as hieroglyphs. On stone monuments or tombs that were discovered and saved later on, there are indications of the existence of many artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Media and Modern Age Education Techniques

Paper and Paper Processing, developed in China at the beginning of the 2nd century AD, was moved to the Middle East and was distributed to the Mediterranean with Muslim libraries. Indicators support that paper mill was also founded in Sicily in the 12th century. The spinning wheel discovery increased the production capacity of thread processing to a large extent, and when Lynn White added the tire with increased supply of tires, it led to the production of cheap paper that was an important factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was made approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The idea of ​​a printing press was an important development factor in the history of education technology to communicate the needs of complex and sophisticated technology-driven communities.

In industrial phases, the industry was simply craft at the artistic level, the teaching processes relied on simple things such as slate, cornerbook, tablet and chalk. It was limited to one text book with several pictures. Educational technology was considered a synonym for simple aids such as charts and pictures.

In 1873, it can be considered as a guiding principle in the history of technology in education or audiovisual media. The show was held in Vienna at an international stage where American schools won the admiration of teachers for exhibits on maps, charts, textbooks and other instruments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), an internationally renowned child teacher and the origin of Montessori The method directly influenced education technology by developing learning materials designed to ensure precise sequencing of subjects for each individual student. Modern educational technology suggests many extensions of the concept of Montessori on the preparation of child-centered environments.

In 1833, Charles Babbage built in the mainstream computer programs the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943 he was the first computing engine based on design of the United States global commercial equipment. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) where the computer works mainly as a guide and the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are used for education in schools, universities and universities.

At the beginning of the 19th century there were notable changes in the field of education. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), from the beginning of the 1920 school edition, continued rapidly to make a good contribution to formal education. In the United States, in 1952, 20 states had provision for education on education. Along with this time, about 98% of the UK schools were equipped with radio and were regular daily plans.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist at Ohio University, developed a self-taught teacher called "Drum Tutor" in 1920. Professor Skinner, on the other hand, in his famous article, "Science of Learning and Art of Teaching" published in 1945 , asked for the application of knowledge from the behavioral psychology of classroom teaching, and provided automated teaching materials to do so. [19659002] Although the first practical use of regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936, the Berlin Olympics broadcast a broadcast in Berlin's television stations. The open television channel was used primarily for broadcast for entertainment in 1950. From 1960, television was used for education.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used technical training for the first time. It is to be noted that in 1960, due to industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also began to develop in applications of education technology. In this way, the beginning of 1960's education began from America and Russia and has now reached England, Europe and India.

By 1950, the new technology was aimed at educating when there was a shortage of teachers in America and there was a need for an urgent need for educational technology. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his colleague, dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Art education originated in America in mid-1950 and was first started in 1955 at Harvard University as part of an internship program.

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom of the United States introduced a description of education with its publication: "Learning Outcomes, Learning Objectives, Handbook I: Intellectual Empire"

In 1961, Micro teaching technology was first approved by Dwight W. Allen and his colleagues at Stanford University in the United States.

Electronics is a primary technology developed in the early 21st century. Access to broadband access became popular and occupied almost all important offices and educational centers and even in common places in developed countries with the option of connecting home theaters with music collections and music books.

Classroom today is more likely to be sophisticated, rows of students using internet-connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, writing pad or maybe students are downloading a video recording or virtual classroom or listening to podcasts or taken in a video lecture. Rapid technical changes in the field of education have created new ways of teaching and learning. Technical changes also encouraged teachers to access a wide range of information globally across the internet, to enhance their lessons and to make them suitable professional in the field of concern. At the same time, students can use great resources online to enrich their learning experience to address changing society's policies. Nowadays, teachers and teachers are also visiting seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international levels using multimedia resources such as PowerPoint, and even engaging in a variety of valuable courses in distance lists by studying online. Online Networks has opened an infinite number of doors of opportunities for today's students to make their lives happier than ever before.

Source by Sanjoy Deka

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