Building a State – Case Study of Financial Holdings Kingdom Limited

This article shows a scenario of sustained employment growth of Treasury finances. It is one of the entrepreneurs of the banks who survived the financial crisis that began in Zimbabwe in 2003. The bank was founded in 1994 by four sustainable bankers. It has grown significantly over the years. The case deals with the Bank's origin, growth and expansion. It concludes by drawing together lessons or principles that can help reduce this issue that may apply to entrepreneurs.

Profile of Entrepreneur: Nigel Chanakira

Nigel Chanakira was raised in Highfield Suburb Harare in the Entrepreneur's Family. His father and cousin steered modern-day Modern Express and later varied in stores. Nigel's father later went from the family company. He bought one of the stores and expanded it. During the day of the holiday, young Nigel, the first born, finished the shops. His parents, especially his mother, demanded that he get education first.

Nigel did not get into a dental or medical school as his first passion. In fact, his class could only get him for a BA degree at the University of Zimbabwe. However, he turned out to move to BA in economics. Academically, he worked hard and utilized his strong competitive position, which was developed during his sports days. Nigel pursued his studies well and went to education with outstanding levels, which opened the door for employment as an economist at the Central Bank of Zimbabwe.

While he was in contact with the Central Bank, economic mentality pointed out that the banking system was identified as it decided to understand the banking and financial markets. While working at RBZ, he studied for a master's degree in financial economics and financial markets in preparation for his debut in banking. At the Central Bank under Dr. Moyana, he was part of the research group who compiled a policy framework for the abolition of the financial institution within the plan for economic restructuring. Being in the right place at the right time he became aware of the opportunities that were being opened. Nigel took advantage of its position to analyze the most profitable banking institution in preparation for its future. He went to Bard Discount House and worked for five years under Charles Gurney.

Shortly afterwards, two black managers joined Bard, Nick Vingirayi and Gibson Muringai, for example, Intermarket Discount House. Their departure inspired young Nigel. If those two could establish their own banking institution, he could give time. The departure also created an opportunity for him to rise to fill the solution. This gave the prospective banker a critical management experience. Subsequently, he became CEO of Bard Investment Services, where he gained critical experience in asset management, business relations and trade within the business area. Until then he met Franky Kufa, a young vendor who was making waves, which would eventually become a key cooperative with him.

Despite his professional business relationship, his father Nigel introduced the Barclays bank "Start Your Own Business" Program. But what really influenced the young entrepreneur was the Empretec Entrepreneur Training Program (May 1994), which he was introduced by Mrs. Tsitsi Masiyiwa. Nigel spoke to Charles Gurney in an attempt to purchase Bard from Anglo-American. He said he had the necessary vocational training.

This failed and increasingly frustrated booster entrepreneur regarded job opportunities fund with the billing market Nick Vingirai and Never Mhlanga, which was about to emerge. He hoped to participate in shareholders as he became acquainted with the promoter. He was denied this opportunity.

He was frustrated in Bard and rejected children in entry into the club. He retired in October 1994 by encouraging Mrs. Masiyiwa to pursue her own dream.

The Dream

Inspired by his priest's message, Rev. Tom Deuschle, and frustrated by his inability to participate in the major construction project of the Church, sought Nigel's way to generate huge resources. During prayer times, he says that he has a divine meeting, where he received a mandate from God to begin treasury. He visited his priest and told him about this meeting and the subsequent desire to start a bank. A good priest was amazed at the 26-year-old with "big glasses and wearing tennis shoes" who wanted to start a bank. The priest asked for advice from a young man. After being convinced that Nigel's boy had been defeated, the priest made something unusual. He asked him to give testimony to the congregation about how God led him to start a bank. Though tired, the young man followed. This experience was a powerful ballot from the divine priest. It shows the power of trainers to build a protégé.

Nigel joined young Franky Kufa. Nigel Chanakira went to Bard in the position of chief economist. They would build their own independent projects. Their idea was to identify players with specific skills, and each one could generate resources from their activities. Their vision was to create a single financial institution that offers discount houses, asset management companies and merchant ships. Nigel used the Empretec model to develop a business plan for their projects. They headhunted Salomon Mugavazi, a share broker from Edwards and Company and B. R. Purohit, corporate banker from Stanbic. Kufa would provide money market knowledge, while Nigel provided revenue from Treasury bonds as well as general controls on the team.

Each prospective partner had an equal share of Z $ 120,000 as a starting percentage. Nigel spoke to his wife and recently sold their homes and vehicles in Eastlea to raise the equivalent of $ 17,000 as initial capital. Nigel, his wife and three children returned to Highfield to live with their parents. Partners established Garmony Investments, which started trading as an unlisted financial institution. Employers did not agree to deduct wages during the first year of operation as a stewardship plan.

Mugavazi introduced and recommended Lysias Sibanda, Auditor Adviser, to participate in the team. Nigel was initially reluctant because each individual had to earn income and it was not clear how an accountant would return income at the start of the financial institution. Nigel initially held a 26% stake, which secured him a vigorous vote and gave him the position of controlling shareholders.

Nigel increases the course "The Dynamics of Successful Management" a weapon that enabled him to gain managerial skills.

Birth of the Kingdom

Kingdom Securities P / L began work in November 1994 as a subsidiary of Garmony Investments (Pvt) Ltd, established as a broker in both money and equity markets.

On February 24, 1995, Kingdom Securities Holding was born with the following subsidiaries: Kingdom Securities Ltd, Kingdom Stockbrokers (Pvt) Ltd and Kingdom Asset Managers (Pvt)) Ltd. The flagged vessel Kingdom Securities Ltd was listed as a discount house under the Act on Banking Act, Chapter 188, July 25, 1995. Government bond issuers were listed on the ICEX in Zimbabwe under ZSE Chapter 195, August 1, 1995. For trading in transactions, good transactions were revenue but they still had a 20% deficit on the required share capital. Most institutional investors turned down as they were a vegetable company who became aware that people were "too young". At this stage, the National Merchant Bank, Intermarket and others in the market were raising equity and were run by fun and mature promoters. However, Rachel Kupara, then MD for Zimnat, believed in young entrepreneurs and took up the first stake for Zimnat at 5%.

Norman Sachikonye, ​​Chief Financial Officer and Investment Manager at First Mutual followed suit, took up a shareholding of 15%. These two professional investors were introduced as shareholders in the UK Securities Depository on August 1, 1995. Garmony Investments discontinued its operations and returns to the Treasury's securities trading on July 31, 1995, becoming a 80% shareholder.

The first year of operation Was marked with high competition and discrimination against new financial institutions by public institutions. All other business units performed well except for the financial sector with securities in the Kingdom, led by Purohit. This monetary loss, different spiritual and moral values ​​resulted in Purohit's denial as managing director and shareholder on December 31, 1995. From that time the state began to grow exponentially.

Building Growth

Nigel and his team pursue aggressive growth policies with the aim of increasing market share, profitability and geographic distribution while developing strong brands. The interest rate plan was built around business philosophy to simplify financial services and make them accessible to the public. On April 1, 1997, state financial services was granted permission to access information technology that created a low cost retailer using ATM and POS while offering a platform ready for the Internet and online applications.

Accept a house focusing on trading and distribution of foreign exchange, treasury, financial services, investment banking and consulting services. It was founded under the leadership of Victor Chando with a view to becoming the group's commercial banking market. In 1998, the State Merchant Bank (KMB) was granted a license and took over the assets and liabilities of Kingdom Securities Limited. Its main focus was the Treasury, non-current financials, foreign exchange and business finance. The National Research Institute was established as a support service for other units.

Entrepreneurial entrepreneurs, known for their limitations, seek to capture critical mass quickly by activating a search for capital injections from investor equity. The objective was to increase ownership while lending support policy in the field of common interests. Attempted asset acquisition from London's international emerging markets failed. However, in 1997, the efforts of bankers were rewarded when the following institutions raised equity and reduced the shareholders' meeting as shown below: "Ipcorn 0.7%", "Zambezi Fund Mauritius P / L 1.1%", Zambezi Fund P / L 0.7%. OWN RESOURCES OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 5%, OWN RESPONSIBLE DEFINITIONS THAT ARE NOT ACCEPTED BY THE DEVELOPMENT. A company belonging to Richard Muirimi, Nigel's long friend and a member of the fund's management, took 1.7%, Garmony Investments 71.7% EIM. After the legal issue, Zimnat fell to 4.8%, while FML fell to 14.3%.

In 1998, a state of four instituted entities that proved to be very popular in the market. Initially, these products were focused on individual customers at the discount house and the private portfolio of Treasury bond portfolios. Aggressive marketing and awareness campaigns established the Kingdom Unit Trust as the most popular retail brand in the group.

Acquisition of Zimbabwe's Discounting Company (DCZ)

After asking for organic growth, state pioneers decided to accelerate economic growth mergers. They set out to acquire the oldest discount house in the country and the world, The Discount Company in Zimbabwe, which was a listed company. With this acquisition, states would get critical skills and achieve high sought-after ZSE registration inexpensively by reverse registration. The initial efforts to merge merger with DCZ were rebuffed by its managers who could not be considered a forty-year agency swallowed by a four-year-old business. Entrepreneurs were not divorced. Nigel approached his friend Greg Brackenridge in Stanbic to finance and influence the acquisition of sixty percent of shares held by ten shareholders, on behalf of Kingdom Financial Holdings, but being owned by Stanbic nomination. This policy obscures the buyer's ID. Claud Chonzi, State Social Security Agency (NSSA) GM and Friend Lysias Sibanda (Governor of the Government) agreed to negotiate with DCZ shareholders. NSSA is a well-known institutional customer and, therefore, these shareholders can believe that they belonged to investor organizations. Once a state ruled 60% of DCZ, it took over the company and backward was listed on the stock exchange as Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited (KFHL). Due to negative real interest rates, the government successfully took out debt to build the acquisition.

Other Strategic Acquisitions

In the same year, the Kingdom Merchant Bank acquired a strategic stake in the CFX Bureau de Change owned by Sean Maloney as well as other parts of the environmental protection rights, Pfihwa P / L. CFX was converted into KFX and Used in most currency transactions. KFHL is aiming to purchase an additional 24.9% stake in CFX Holdings to ensure initial investment and ensure management control. This did not work. Instead, Sean Maloney took out and assumed that the Universal Merchant Bank could not be bought to form a CFX Merchant Bank. Although government officials argue that the Alliance has failed because the government changed its government, Sean Maloney's refusal to control the capital sought by the state seems to be. It would therefore be fair that once a state could not control KFX, it would occur. The winding up of the investment in 2002 led to the loss of 403 million Z3. However, it was manageable in light of the Group's high profitability.

Pfihwa P / L finances the informal sector as a form of corporate responsibility. However, when non-indexed environments and strict environmental regulations impacted the feasibility of the project, it ended at the beginning of 2004. The Kingdom continued its funding of the informal sector through MicroKing, established with international assistance. In 2002, MicroKing had eight articles located in the middle or near micro-organisms.

In 2000, due to increased activity in foreign exchange reserves within the banking system, state-owned private banking operations opened through the Discount House to capitalize on income from this market. Following market development, the company was responsible for AIG to enter the banking service market in 2003.

Meikles Strategic Alliance

In 1999, entrepreneur Chanakira was appointed by his management and the legendary company from Barclays Bank led by Hugh Van Hoffen , Under the leadership of a strategic alliance with Meikles Africa, injected $ 322 million Z2 into a 25% shareholding state. Interestingly, the agreement reached almost pricing, since Meikles would only pay 250 million US dollars, while KFHL deserved Z 322 million Z, but the largest private sector was between domestic banks and listed companies. Nigel testifies that there was a walk in the unsatisfactory gospel on Saturday before the signing of the Meikles Convention, which led him to sign the treaty that he saw as the sewing seed into the church to increase the Fund's building. God was faithful! Share prices ranged significantly from $ 2.15 at the time he made a commitment to the Pastor all the way to $ 112.00 for next October!

Instead, a state bought a powerful cash-rich shareholder that allowed it to enter into retail banking with innovative banking business. Meikles Africa opened its retail business, ie. TM Supermarkets, Clicks, Barbours, Medix Pharmacies and Greatermans, as distribution channels for UK commercial banks or as account providers who provide deposits and require banking services. This was a cheaper way to enter retail banking. It proved useful during the financial crisis in 2003, because Míkles with high monetary resources in its trading units helped the Treasury and mitigated the liquidity crisis. The Alliance also raised the reputation and credibility of Kingdom Bank and created a state opportunity to fund Meikles Africa's customers through joint ownership of Meikles Financial Services. The government financed all lease agreements and purchased purchases from Meikles subsidiaries and thus operated sales for Meikles, but provided easy lending opportunities for the state. Meikles contacted the customer.

Meikles Africa as a strategic shareholder secured state success when refinancing was required and has increased brand image in the UK.

Commercial Bank

To utilize the opportunities that follow the policy of Meikles Africa, made its debut in retail banking operations in January 2001 with the I-Retail branch at High Glen and Chitungwiza TM supermarkets. The main goal was the mass market. This was angry with the strong brand, which the state had created through the Governor. Banking offers low-cost shipments with minimum investment in brick and mortar. At the end of 2001, thirteen branches were run across the country. This followed a deliberate strategy for aggressive propagation of the branches with two flagship screws one in Bulawayo and the other in Harare. A major focus was placed on information technology companies with significant sales between commercial banks and other municipalities.

On the other hand, it became clear that the market was for the targeted customers, and as a result, Crown Banking was established to diversify the target audience. In 2004, after closing three merchandise in optimization, there were 16 in retail and 9 crown banking.

Before commercial banks were probably held in the wrong time with regard to imminent changes in the banking system. The commercial bank provides cheap deposits, however, on significant costs of human resources and human resources complications. Nigel acknowledges that this could be delayed or slowing down. However, the need for increased market share in strong competitive sectors was needed. Another reason for dealing with the commercial banking project was the previous agreements with Meikles Africa. It is possible that Meikles Africa has been sold to the share offering following a promise to participate in a commercial bank that would increase revenues for its subsidiaries.

New Products and Services

KFHL continued an aggressive search for product development. After the KFX project failed, CurrencyKing was established to continue its work. However, it was abolished in November 2002 with a ministerial intervention when the office switch was banned in order to stamp out parallel market foreign exchange transactions.

Unfortunately, this government decision was distorted, because not only did it not prohibit foreign currency trading, it drove underground, made it more lucrative and later the government lost control over the exchange rate.

In October 2002, KFHL established a Treasury lease after receiving a housing license. Its mandate was to take advantage of the opportunity to trade in finance leases, leases and short-term finance.

Regional Expansion

About 2000 it became clear that the domestic market was very competitive, with limited possibilities of future interest rates. A decision was made to diversify income streams and reduce land risk with regional market penetration. This policy would utilize proven ability in securities trading, asset management and corporate finance from a small financial institution. As a result, the entrance had little risk in terms of capital injections. Taking into account the restrictions on foreign exchange controls and the lack of foreign currency in Zimbabwe, this was a prudent policy, not without being unfavorable, as seen in Botswana.

In 2001, KFHL acquired a 25.1% stake in Greenville banking company in Malawi, First Discount House Ltd. In order to defend its investment and ensure management, the Managing Director and Distributor were sent to Malawi, and Nigel Chanakira, Chairman of the Board. This investment has continued to grow and yield a positive return. As of July 2006, the state was able to improve its share from 25.1% to 40% in this investment and could eventually manage it to try to convert the license to commercial banks.

KFHL also took 25% stake in Investrust Merchant Bank of Zambia. Franky Kufa was appointed Managing Director, but Nigel took up office.

KFHL had been promised the opportunity to gain a dominant role. However, when the bank stopped, Zambian shareholders made some dubious business and were not prepared to allow KFHL to take up their share, so KFHL decided to pull out as the relationships looked in the frosty. The Zambian Central Bank seized the promise to grant KFHL its own banking license. This did not happen when the Zambian Central Bank took advantage of the banking crisis in Zimbabwe to deny a KHFL license. Inflation Z 2.5 billion was obtained by desinvestment.

In Botswana, a subsidiary, known as Kingdom Bank Africa Ltd (KBAL), was established as an electronic communications company in the International Monetary Fund. KBAL was meant to spearhead and manage regional projects for states. It was on the way of Mrs. Irene Chamney, given by Lysias Sibanda, alongside Nigel after management challenges in Zimbabwe. Two other senior executives were placed there. She successfully set up KBAL's banking system and had good relations with Botswana government.

However, the commercial model chosen by banks offshore commercial banks in Botswana seemed more like the Zimbabwe banking crisis between 2003 and 2005. It was fundamental to how Mrs Chamney and Chanakira saw the bank live and Move on.

Finally, it was considered wise for Mrs Chamney to leave the bank in 2005. In 2001, KFHL purchased the retailer as sole distributor of the American Express card in all of Africa except RSA. This was handled with KBAL. Kingdom Private Bank was transferred from the discount house to become a KBAL subsidiary for the current regulatory environment in Zimbabwe.

In 2004, KBAL was funded for sub-financing. At this stage, the parent company had administrative barriers that prevent foreign currency injections from foreign currency.

A solution was found at the source of local affiliate and US $ 1 million transfer, previously estimated by the Investment Bank to Botswana. Nigel Chanakira took a more active management role in KBAL due to a great deal of policy towards the future of KFHL. Now it is working to acquire a local commercial bank license in Botswana. When purchased, there are two possible situations, ie. To maintain both licenses or grant a port permit.

The interviews were divided on their opinion. However, in my opinion, KFHL is convicted of a holding company that is likely to provide banking in the country and use Botswana in the UK (Pula Bank) for regional and domestic expansion.


The personal supplement increased from the beginning of 23 in 1995 to more than 947 in 2003. The growth was in line with the growing organization. It exploded, especially during launch and expansion of the commercial bank. The King from the beginning had strong human resources management, which involves substantial training, both inside and outside. Before the foreign currency crisis was sent, staff were trained in such countries as RSA, Sweden, India and the United States. In the confederacy Ntabeni Bhebhe, there was a powerful HR driver who created a powerful HR system for the upcoming world championship title.

Recognizing its commitment to building human resources, in 1998, the Kingdom Financial Services Management Agreement with the Netherlands built AMSCO for the provision of spicy bankers. With this military alliance, the state strengthened its talents and increased opportunity to transfer skills to local people. This helped an independent banker create a solid management system for the bank, but an urgent banker from the Netherlands paid for young people growing bankers. What Foresight!

Internally self-taught interactive learning, team training and counselors were all part of the course aimed at developing the group's human resources capacity. Work and vocational training was introduced to suit the best employees with relevant posts. Career path and sequence planning were hugged. The government was the first entrepreneur to have smooth unauthorized CEO transitions. The CEO of Baton performed at Baton to Lysias Sibanda in 1999 and took the role of CEO and Chairman of the Board. His role was to pursue and manage the international and regional niche financial market. A few years later there was another change in the defense of

Franky Kufa joined the CEO to replace Sibanda, who died for medical reasons. One could argue that these smooth transformations were because Baton went to founders.

With explosive growth in employees' complement for the commercial project, culture emerged. As a result, KFHL participated in the enc kulturation program that leads to a culture revolution called "Team Kingdom". This culture had to be strengthened because of dilution with significant merger and acquisitions, substantial turnover of employees due to increased competition, exports to green pastures and aging increased the risk of high mobility and fraudulent activity in consultation with the public. Cultural changes are difficult to implement, and their performance is more difficult to assess.

In 2004, with a high turnover of 14% Due to the low margins and financial stresses that occurred in 2004, KFHL lost more than 341 employees due to loss, natural abatement and exports. This was acceptable as profitability fell but staff costs rose. At this point, labor costs were 58% of all costs.

Despite high growth, financial performance was moderate when inflation was adjusted. The actual loss situation was announced in 2004. This growth was seriously compromised due to the conditions of the emergency and restrictive regulatory environment.


This article shows the entrepreneur's decision to promote the implementation of their dreams despite significant likelihood. In the next article, we will deal with the tasks Nigel Chanakira stands for in strengthening his investments.

Source by Dr Tawafadza A. Makoni

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