Beginner's Computer Appreciation (Part 1)

For those who really want to be perfect in computer operations and understanding, this article that comes in "Things" will guide you carefully from the basics of your PC to complex use of software in the system . Before you start using the applications in the system, he or she wants to understand the system component and their usage. And then I want to let you know about the meaning of your computer and probably computer generations.

Definition of computer system

Computers are defined in so many ways by so many situations based on their specialization. Computer is a collection of related and interactive devices that use electronic components to perform preconceived operation with accuracy. But in general, a computer system can simply be defined as an electronic device capable of accepting data as an input, processing data, storing the data and giving a result as output in readable form. The four main components of the computer are Display, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.

A short story about a computer

Computer history and development is always attributed to Charles Babbage, father computer and Lady Ada Lovelace, mother programming. The computer we have come to use today completely without much stress and difficulty was not invented as we have seen but through the series of processes and stages. There are five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:

The first generation computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)

This generation of computers consists of computers developed in 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Speech and Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Terminal Storage Automated Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers was very bulky, loosens a lot of heat, some were very heavy and weigh up to 200 tons. Because of the heat they needed a special cooling system. Characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum pipes as a basic structure for the logic of computer parts. In terms of speed, they were much slower compared to computers of later generations.

Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)

The technology, which gave the characteristic features of the second generation of the computer, was a technology transistor. Although this device was developed in 1948 at Bell Telephone Laboratories and used mainly in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced to computer production. These crawlers replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing all that vacuum could do, transistors would do it with greater reliability, with less energy, generate less heat, cheaper to produce and much smaller in size. The computer that was developed in 1959-1964 is called second generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high-level programming, such as FORTRAN and COBOL, was another innovation that emerged from the second generation of the computer and was 10 times faster than first.

Third generation computers (integrated circuit technology)

Between 1964 and 1971, third-generation computers were developed. It was a technology integrated circuit that opened the sides of third generation computers. In fact, we can say that integrated circuit technology really works the computer technology itself. Built-in circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam gradually from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diode, through Medium Scale Integration (MSI), which had over one hundred chip single-chip transistors, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) over tens of Thousands of clocks and diode on a single chip. The performance of integrated circuit technology led to an even faster, more reliable, inexpensive and small computer, as the powers were multiple of previous generations. In pain, this generation of computers gave birth to small computers, whose power power was more than the previous generation, greater reliability and speed, but was much less in size and in cost. They could do hundreds of as many calculations per second and one hundred times faster than their other generation counterparts. Examples: IBM 31360 – 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.

Fourth generation computers (VLSIC micro technology

Very large-scale integrated cycle (VLSIC), possible with the microelectronics of the period 1971-1982, began in the fourth generation of the computer. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 sides (transistors), where microprocessors were built. The impact of this technology was smaller and less than more and more powerful computers that accelerated and reliably lost in previous generations. This era also created the processors who could work for the first generation of big computers at thousands of faster speeds and affordable prices, even after the individual. This generation also produced a wide range of software packages such as word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheets and database management. Networking was also increased during this period. Examples of fourth generation computers include IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.

Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)

The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by ultra large scale (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Voice Processing, Minority and Expert System. The characteristic features of this generation of computers are the enormous speed and power of them. Continuous computer simulation is the order of the day, newer, smaller, powerful computers are shown day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today reduced the potential of older days. Pentium II motherboard with clock speed greater than 300 MHz and storage of hard disk over 20 Gigabyte with incredible devices, are now affordable, even with low revenue. Networks, ranging from local, wide area to servers, are common features of this generation of computers and have reduced the whole world into an international village.

Source by Emmanuel Effiong

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *